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Anlam Bütünlüğünü Bozan Tümce

Anlam Bütünlüğünü Bozan Tümce

  • Connector olarak adlandırılan (in other words, that is, however gibi) yapıların kullanımına dikkat. Bu yapılar paragraf içinde tümcelerin birbiri ile yapısal bağlantısını sağladığı için paragrafın bütününü anlamanıza yardımcı olurlar.
  • Değinme (=reference) belirten sözcükleri inceleyin. Başka sözcük ya da ifadeler yerine kullanılan it, he, she, one, that, the former, the latter gibi değinme sözcüklerinin bir önceki tümce ve daha önceki tümcelerle ilişkisini saptayın. Herhangi bir ilişki yoksa sözcüğün geçtiği tümce anlam bütünlüğünü bozan tümce olabilir.
  • Çok genel bir ifadeyi ele alan tümcelere özellikle dikkat edin.

Aşağıda örnek olarak 12 anlam bütünlüğünü bozan tümce sorusu verildi.

Yanıtlar bütün sorulardan sonra gelmekte.

1. (I) By about 3500 B.C., there had developed in Egypt and Mesopotamia a highly advanced social and economic life. (II) Copper and bronze were being used, although on a limited scale, and trading contracts with other countries had been established. (III) It is the opinion of most archaeologists that civilization first developed in the Middle East. (IV) Many of the contracts were with Syria, which, lying between Egypt and Mesopotamia, had participated at an early date in the general advance of material and cultural development. (V) Moreover, Syria was endowed with a number of resources that were lacking in Egypt and Mesopotamia.

A. I   B. II   C. III   D. IV   E. V

2. (I) Throughout the Middle Ages Christian Europe launched many allied expeditions against the Muslim rule in Spain to bring it to an end. (II) Historically, the ancient palace of the Muslim rulers at Granada is called "Alhambra". (III) Originally, it was designed, built, and developed into an architectural masterpiece in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. (IV) Unfortunately, the stylistic uniformity of the palace was spoiled when in the sixteenth century turned part of it into a modern residence. (V) However, the most beautiful parts of the interior, including the Court of Alberca and the Court of Lions, have survived and preserve their original charm.

A. I   B. II   C. III   D. IV   E. V

3. (I) It was Engels in 1844 who first referred to the Industrial Revolution in Britain. (II) For him, the transformation of Britain from a merely agricultural country into a predominantly industrial one was of a revolutionary nature. (III) In the nineteenth century Britain colonized most of Africa and South East Asia. (IV) Actually, the Industrial Revolution had begun in the late eighteenth century with the mechanization of the textile industry. (V) This was soon followed by major technological and other industrial developments which made Britain the most prosperous country in the world.

A. I   B. II   C. III   D. IV   E. V

4. (I) While most early European immigrants to America were farmers, many city dwellers came to the new land as well. (II) These new comers were attracted to the bustling urban centres. (III) As a result, American cities expanded enormously. (IV) The history of the United States is filled with accounts of people who came from all over the world to settle here. (V) New York, for example, which had a population of only six thousand in 1800, grew to a city of more than one million in 1860.

A. I   B. II   C. III   D. IV   E. V

5. (I) As we live and grow we learn the culture of the society in which we live. (II) Sociologists tell us that the most significant elements of culture that we must learn are values, norms and roles. (III) While values are rather general, norms are quite specific. (IV) A collection of the norms connected with a particular situation or activity is a society is called a role. (V) History shows us that disagreements over vital political issues always create violent conflicts within a society.

A. I   B. II   C. III   D. IV   E. V

6. (I) In 1965 when Mrs Indira Gandhi became the prime minister of India, she faced serious political problems in the country. (II) For instance, she followed a pro-Soviet foreign policy and, hence, did not react against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (III) In the first place, she had to consolidate her authority in the Congress Party against the opposition from the Party's old guard. (IV) Also she had to deal with the terrorist activities in various parts of the country. (V) However, she took courageous steps in her rule and won a landslide election victory in 1971.

A. I   B. II   C. III   D. IV   E. V

7. (I) Getting through a day without being exposed to the media would be unthinkable. (II) Both directly and indirectly the media have a profound effect on our daily lives. (III) What we eat, what we buy, what we do, even what we think is influenced by the media. (IV) Yet, the question is whether what the media provides us with, can always be good and revealing. (V) According to one study, 64% of the American public turns on television for most of its news.

A. I   B. II   C. III   D. IV   E. V

8. (I) Writing in the 1930s, J. M. Keynes was mainly concerned with unemployment. (II) For him, the question was why it persisted. (III) Since 1945 the twin objectives of economic growth and full employment have been the primary concern of developed countries throughout world. (IV) His own answer to this was that unemployment was determined by the level of output, and this was determined by demand. (V) Therefore, the level of unemployment could be regulated by managing the level of demand.

A. I   B. II   C. III   D. IV   E. V

9. (I) To understand the British system of government it is essential to appreciate the importance of the party system. (II) Naturally, parties exist to form governments, and in Britain the path to this goal lies in the House of Commons, for the party which obtains a majority of seats has the right to form the government. (III) Since the seventeenth century, two parties have usually been predominant in Britain policies. (IV) Until 1920s the Tories (the Conservatives) and the Whigs (the Liberals), and since the 1930s the Conservatives and the Labour. (V) So far many reforms have been introduced to improve the local election system.

A. I   B. II   C. III   D. IV   E. V

  1. (I) In October 1973 the Arab oil-producing states took the decision to restrict oil supplies to the West and raise oil prices. (II) The restriction of supplies was initiated as a short-run weapon in the Arab-Israel conflict. (III) In fact, it revealed a potential for obtaining higher prices, which had not previously exploited by the oil countries. (IV) Most economists argue that the exploitation of North Sea oil has been a mixed blessing for Britain. (V) Being aware of this potential, the international oil cartel OPEC raised the price for a barrel of crude oil from 1.75 US dollars in September 1973 to 7.00 US dollars in January 1974.

A. I   B. II   C. III   D. IV   E. V

  1. (I) In general the term "abstract art" is used to describe new movements and techniques in plastic arts in the twentieth century. (II) The underlying principle of this art is that it is not the subject at all but form and colour which really possess aesthetic value. (III) Obviously, we cannot disregard the fact that the vitality of art throughout history is closely bound up with some form of religion. (IV) Most art historians suggest that the Impressionists, especially Cezanne, can be considered to be the pioneers of this art. (V) Also, there are some who strongly argue that the origins of abstract art are to be sought in the designs of primitive people as well as folk art.

A. I   B. II   C. III   D. IV   E. V

  1. (I) From the fourteenth century onwards, especially in Italy, scholars, poets, and artists began to take a new interest in learning. (II) In nearly all the city-states of Northern Italy the power had been seized by certain families. (III) Instead of studying chiefly theology and the writings of the medieval philosophers, they now turned to the philosophers and poets of classical antiquity and began to study them intensively. (IV) The minds of men were now set free and they began to think as they pleased. (V) This new learning soon spread to the rest of Europe and the "Renaissance" was well under way.

A. I   B. II   C. III   D. IV   E. V

YANITLAR

  1. (I) By about 3500 B.C., there had developed in Egypt and Mesopotamia a highly advanced social and economic life. (II) Copper and bronze were being used, although on a limited scale, and trading contracts with other countries had been established. (III) It is the opinion of most archaeologists that civilization first developed in the Middle East. (IV) Many of the contracts were with Syria, which, lying between Egypt and Mesopotamia, had participated at an early date in the general advance of material and cultural development. (V) Moreover, Syria was endowed with a number of resources that were lacking in Egypt and Mesopotamia.

Üçüncü tümce tüm paragrafın anlattıkları için çok genel. Ayrıca, tümcelerin tümü geçmişten söz ederken üçüncü tümce bugünü anlatmakta.

  1. (I) Throughout the Middle Ages Christian Europe launched many allied expeditions against the Muslim rule in Spain to bring it to an end. (II) Historically, the ancient palace of the Muslim rulers at Granada is called "Alhambra". (III) Originally, it was designed, built, and developed into an architectural masterpiece in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. (IV) Unfortunately, the stylistic uniformity of the palace was spoiled when in the sixteenth century turned part of it into a modern residence. (V) However, the most beautiful parts of the interior, including the Court of Alberca and the Court of Lions, have survived and preserve their original charm.

Birinci tümce tüm paragrafın anlattıkları için çok genel. Paragrafın bütünü sarayı anlatmakta.

  1. (I) It was Engels in 1844 who first referred to the Industrial Revolution in Britain. (II) For him, the transformation of Britain from a merely agricultural country into a predominantly industrial one was of a revolutionary nature. (III) In the nineteenth century Britain colonized most of Africa and South East Asia.(IV) Actually, the Industrial Revolution had begun in the late eighteenth century with the mechanization of the textile industry. (V) This was soon followed by major technological and other industrial developments which made Britain the most prosperous country in the world.

İkinci ve dördüncü tümceler koloni durumundan endüstrileşme sürecini geçişi anlattıkları için birbiri ile bağlantılı. Üçüncü tümce bu bağlantıyı çok genel bir ifade ile bozuyor.

  1. (I) While most early European immigrants to America were farmers, many city dwellers came to the new land as well. (II) These new comers were attracted to the bustling urban centres. (III) As a result, American cities expanded enormously. (IV) The history of the United States is filled with accounts of people who came from all over the world to settle here. (V) New York, for example, which had a population of only six thousand in 1800, grew to a city of more than one million in 1860.

Dördüncü tümce tüm paragrafın anlattıkları için çok genel.

  1. (I) As we live and grow we learn the culture of the society in which we live. (II) Sociologists tell us that the most significant elements of culture that we must learn are values, norms and roles. (III) While values are rather general, norms are quite specific. (IV) A collection of the norms connected with a particular situation or activity is a society is called a role. (V) History shows us that disagreements over vital political issues always create violent conflicts within a society.

Metnin bütününde values ve norms ele alınmakta. Beşinci tümce ise bambaşka şeylerden söz ediyor. 

  1. (I) In 1965 when Mrs Indira Gandhi became the prime minister of India, she faced serious political problems in the country. (II) For instance, she followed a pro-Soviet foreign policy and, hence, did not react against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (III) In the first place, she had to consolidate her authority in the Congress Party against the opposition from the Party's old guard. (IV) Also she had to deal with the terrorist activities in various parts of the country. (V) However, she took courageous steps in her rule and won a landslide election victory in 1971.

Metnin bütünü political problems ile ilgili. İkinci tümcede ise bu işlenmemekte.

  1. (I) Getting through a day without being exposed to the media would be unthinkable. (II) Both directly and indirectly the media have a profound effect on our daily lives. (III) What we eat, what we buy, what we do, even what we think is influenced by the media. (IV) Yet, the question is whether what the media provides us with, can always be good and revealing. (V) According to one study, 64% of the American public turns on television for most of its news.

Tüm metin media ve onun etkileri ile ilgili. Beşinci tümcede ise metnin tümünde ele alınmayan ve bağlantısı olmayan ayrıntılar var.

  1. (I) Writing in the 1930s, J. M. Keynes was mainly concerned with unemployment. (II) For him, the question was why it persisted. (III) Since 1945 the twin objectives of economic growth and full employment have been the primary concern of developed countries throughout world. (IV) His own answer to this was that unemployment was determined by the level of output, and this was determined by demand. (V) Therefore, the level of unemployment could be regulated by managing the level of demand.

Herşeyden önce, tüm paragrafta geçmiş zaman kullanılırken üçüncü tümcede present perfect kullanılmakta. Ayrıca ikinci tümcenin Keynes ve onun düşünceleriyle bir ilişkisi yok. 

  1. (I) To understand the British system of government it is essential to appreciate the importance of the party system. (II) Naturally, parties exist to form governments, and in Britain the path to this goal lies in the House of Commons, for the party which obtains a majority of seats has the right to form the government. (III) Since the seventeenth century, two parties have usually been predominant in Britain policies. (IV) Until 1920s the Tories (the Conservatives) and the Whigs (the Liberals), and since the 1930s the Conservatives and the Labour. (V) So far many reforms have been introduced to improve the local election system.

Metinde local election system ile doğrudan ilişkili hiçbirşey yok. Ayrıca, tüm paragraf party system ve bunun nitelikleri ile ilgili. 

  1. (I) In October 1973 the Arab oil-producing states took the decision to restrict oil supplies to the West and raise oil prices. (II) The restriction of supplies was initiated as a short-run weapon in the Arab-Israel conflict. (III) In fact, it revealed a potential for obtaining higher prices, which had not previously exploited by the oil countries. (IV) Most economists argue that the exploitation of North Sea oil has been a mixed blessing for Britain. (V) Being aware of this potential, the international oil cartel OPEC raised the price for a barrel of crude oil from 1.75 US dollars in September 1973 to 7.00 US dollars in January 1974.

Tüm paragrafta 1973 yılında olan şeyler anlatılmakta. Dördüncü tümce ise çok genel ve günümüze ait bilgi içermekte. 

  1. (I) In general the term "abstract art" is used to describe new movements and techniques in plastic arts in the twentieth century. (II) The underlying principle of this art is that it is not the subject at all but form and colour which really possess aesthetic value. (III) Obviously, we cannot disregard the fact that the vitality of art throughout history is closely bound up with some form of religion. (IV) Most art historians suggest that the Impressionists, especially Cezanne, can be considered to be the pioneers of this art. (V) Also, there are some who strongly argue that the origins of abstract art are to be sought in the designs of primitive people as well as folk art.

Birinci tümcede abstract art, ikinci tümcede this art (=abstract art), dördüncü tümcede this art (=abstract art) ve beşinci tümcede abstract art.

  1. (I) From the fourteenth century onwards, especially in Italy, scholars, poets, and artists began to take a new interest in learning. (II) In nearly all the city-states of Northern Italy the power had been seized by certain families. (III) Instead of studying chiefly theology and the writings of the medieval philosophers, they now turned to the philosophers and poets of classical antiquity and began to study them intensively. (IV) The minds of men were now set free and they began to think as they pleased. (V) This new learning soon spread to the rest of Europe and the "Renaissance" was well under way.

Tüm paragraf learning ile ilgili. İkinci tümce dışında.

 


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